June 12, 2012 CONTACT: Michael Sligh, (919) 641-9341, [email protected] This year’s Farm Bill should direct more research dollars to classical breeding projects that result in finished, publicly owned plant and animal varieties, according to a letter from more than 100 farm organizations and scientists. The letter supports the Tester Amendment to the Farm Bill, which would reserve five percent of the USDA Agriculture and Food Research Initiative’s funds for such projects. The 2008 Farm Bill mandated that the Initiative prioritize this kind of research. Yet between 2009 and 2011, the Initiative only funded one grant, out of 127, that fit the description. “The amendment has obvious benefits for researchers and consumers, and it’s good for every farmer, no matter what kind of crop they choose to grow,” says Michael Sligh, Just Foods Program Director at the Rural Advancement Foundation International – USA. “Classical breeding is a proven, cost-effective complement to genomic techniques. Without federal support, we are losing public seeds and breeds, a critical resource for American farmers and researchers and for the stability of the global food supply,” Sligh said. Todd Leake grows wheat and soybeans with his brother on 2,000 acres in Grand Forks County, N.D. “Soils here are on the alkaline side, and the growing season is short,” Leake said. “I depend on my state’s land grant university for crop lines that can handle our emerging disease and pest pressures, as well as our local soil and climate and growing conditions. “But without federal funding,” Leake said, “public program breeders can’t develop these crops, and farmers like me won’t have the choices we need. Already, my crop choices are dwindling.” Leake said that large seed companies also benefit from healthy public breeding programs. “A lot of the seed lines large seed companies use comes from the public sector,” he said. “I hope our Senators will do the right thing for the farmers and the excellent researchers that support us, and support the Tester Amendment,” Leake said. The letter in support of the Amendment is signed by 51 farm groups and 50 researchers and professionals from 34 states. Download a printable PDF copy of this release. Information on past AFRI funding is from the 2011 study, “AFRI Classical Breeding: Analysis and Recommendations.” The full letter reads: On behalf of more than 100 agricultural businesses, organizations, and scientists, we respectfully ask for your support of Senator Tester’s amendment to the Senate Farm Bill. This amendment aims to enhance farmer access to improved crop cultivars and livestock breeds adapted to diverse and regional farming needs. Directing more public dollars toward classical breeding projects that result in finished seeds and breeds increases the competitiveness of agriculture across the U.S. Classical breeding projects also improve food security for our growing population. Classical breeding is a proven approach to meeting our food and fiber needs Classical plant and livestock breeding is a proven science. It is our most successful and benign approach to crop improvement, accounting for about half of our dramatic food and fiber crop yield increases throughout the 20th and early 21st centuries. Classical breeding, using field-based selection, complements newer forms of breeding and fills important roles that lab-based approaches, such as genomics, are not well suited to. Lab-based breeding has value, and may become more important as these technologies improve, but cannot be relied upon currently or in the foreseeable future to fulfill many breeding needs. Classical breeding, in particular, is highly cost-effective. Senator Tester’s amendment reinforces and builds on a 2008 Farm Bill mandate The need to better support classical breeding becomes more pressing each year. The 2008 Farm Bill included a congressional mandate that classical plant breeding be a priority within the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative (AFRI). There have been other requests by congressional agriculture and appropriations committees for USDA to make classical plant and animal breeding a priority. To date, USDA has not fulfilled the 2008 congressional mandate. Instead, the agency has funded molecular breeding approaches to the near exclusion of classical breeding. This is because USDA includes lab-based approaches in its definition of classical breeding. USDA also prioritizes projects that demand large research budgets and typically focus on a few major traits in major crops using lab-based breeding approaches, leaving out many smaller acreage crops and good traits in major crops that are collectively very important to U.S. agriculture. While these projects may improve traits that are of broad interest, they are not addressing the demand for new cultivars that meet the diverse needs of farmers, especially cultivars adapted to regional conditions – a critical requirement for developing highly productive crop cultivars and diverse cropping systems that are resilient. Senator Tester’s amendment corrects problems in AFRI breeding grants that have become apparent since the last Farm Bill by requiring that 5 percent of annual funding for USDA’s AFRI program prioritize public cultivar and breed development through classical breeding. It also removes hurdles that hinder USDA’s progress toward this goal. Genomics methods would continue to receive substantial funding. U.S. farmers face diminished seed choices to meet specific farming needs Farmers constantly face changing insect, weed, and disease pressures that vary by region and that rapidly change. Crops must continuously be adapted to meet these changes. Similarly, climate, growing season length, soils, and water availability all greatly affect crop growth and vary across the U.S. The most productive approach is to have seeds that are adapted to the same environment as their intended use. The large investments currently made in molecular breeding programs do not adequately support the development of complex traits necessary for adapting seed to regional needs. It is not cost-effective to use these approaches to develop crop cultivars or livestock breeds adapted to the diverse needs of farmers. The lack of seed options is especially apparent for farmers seeking a range of cultivars in major crops. Options are even less for farmers seeking cultivars that are held in the public domain. Meeting food security needs Beyond farmer choice, the lack of seed availability and the narrowing of genetic resources are making our food system less secure. Classical breeding can provide the genetic tools farmers need to manage evolving pest, disease, and weather challenges, creating a source of seeds and breeds adapted to changing needs and opportunities. Of course, one of these needs includes feeding our growing population. The maintenance and improvement of genetic diversity through classical breeding is essential for the success of productive food systems and the greater global food supply, both now and into the future. This is a national issue and should be addressed, at least in part, through national programs such as AFRI. Summary Farmer access to regionally adapted seeds and breeds is paramount to fostering the competitiveness of agriculture in all regions of the U.S. As agricultural research has shifted toward an emphasis on lab-based and molecular breeding, seed choice has not kept up with demand, and the diversity of our plant genetic resources has narrowed. Farmers need access to seeds that are bred specifically for their regions and cropping systems. In particular, farmers lament limited cultivar options in major crops, especially publicly held cultivars released by land grant universities that are adapted to regional farming needs to satisfy the national market. By improving agricultural productivity and resilience, classical breeding also improves food security for our growing population. Senator Tester’s amendment seeks to reinvigorate classical plant breeding in the public sector to better ensure farmers have the seeds and breeds they need to be successful. Sincerely, American Raw Milk Producers Pricing Association (Wisconsin) Arkansas Rice Growers Association (Arkansas) California Farmers Union (California) Carolina Farm Stewardship Association (North and South Carolina) Center for a Livable Future Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (Maryland) Center for Rural Affairs (Nebraska) Dakota Resource Council (North Dakota) Dakota Rural Action (South Dakota) Delta Land & Community (Arkansas) Draper Family Farm (Iowa) Family Farm Defenders (Wisconsin) Farm and Ranch Freedom Alliance (Texas) Food For Maine’s Future (Maine) Friends of Family Farmers (Oregon) Grain Millers, Inc. (Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Oregon) Hawai’i Public Seed Initiative (Hawaii) Idaho Rural Council (Idaho) Kansas Farmers Union (Kansas) Land Stewardship Project (Minnesota) Mississippi Association of Cooperatives (Mississippi) Missouri Farmers Union (Missouri) Missouri Rural Crisis Center (Missouri) Montana Farmers Union (Montana) National Family Farm Coalition (National) National Farmers Union (National) National Hmong American Farmers (National) Nebraska Farmers Union (Nebraska) New England Farmers Union (New England) Northwest Atlantic Marine Alliance Oregon Rural Action (Oregon) Organic Seed Growers and Trade Association (National) Organic Valley (Wisconsin) Organization for Competitive Markets (Nebraska) Prairie Quest Farm (Iowa) Progressive Agriculture Organization (Pennsylvania) R-CALF (National) Ranch Foods Direct (Colorado) Rural Advancement Foundation International – USA (National) Rural Vermont (Vermont) Seed Matters (California) South Agassiz Resource Council (North Dakota) Steve’s Seed Conditioning (Illinois) Stonebridge Ltd. (Iowa) The Land Institute (Kansas) The National Young Farmers’ Coalition (National) Union of Concerned Scientists (National) United Natural Foods, Inc. (National) Virginia Association for Biological Farming (Virginia) Western Colorado Congress (Colorado) Western Organization of Resource Councils Women, Food and Agriculture Network (Iowa) Agricultural Scientists & Professionals Catherine Badgley, Ph.D. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Michigan Zach Bouricius, Consultant Plant, Soil and Insect Science from University of Massachusetts at Amherst Liz Carlisle, Ph.D., Candidate National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellow Center for Diversified Farming Systems University of California – Berkeley John E. Carroll College of Life Sciences and Agriculture University of New Hampshire Eric Casler, Ph.D. Candidate Conservation Biology Program University of Minnesota Martha L. Crouch, Ph.D. Consultant on Agriculture and Technology Julie Dawson, Postdoctoral Research Associate Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics Cornell University George M. Diggs, Jr., Ph.D. Professor of Biology Austin College J. Franklin Egan Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Pennsylvania State University David Ehrenfeld, M.D., Ph.D. Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources School of Environmental and Biological Sciences Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Les Everett Agronomist Water Resources Center University of Minnesota Jan Garrett Organic Vegetable Production Research Auburn University Michael Glos Department of Plant Breeding Cornell University Walter Goldstein, Ph.D. Mandaamin Instituate (Wisconsin) Major Goodman William Neal Reynolds Professor and Distinguished University Professor of Crop Science, Genetics, and Statistics Member of the National Academy of Sciences North Carolina State University Julie Grossman Ph.D. Assistant Professor Soil Fertility Management in Organic Cropping Systems North Carolina State University John Patrick Hart, Ph.D. Candidate Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics (Vegetable Breeding) Cornell University Lori Hoagland Assistant Professor Specialty Crop Production Systems Purdue University Philip H. Howard Assistant Professor Community, Food and Agriculture Michigan State University Alastair Iles Assistant Professor of Science, Technology & Environment Department of Environmental Science, Policy & Management University of California – Berkeley Krista Isaacs, Ph.D. Candidate in Agroecology Michigan State University Allison L H Jack Professor of Agroecology Prescott College Sibella Kraus Sustainable Agriculture Education (SAGE) David Brower Center (California) Matt Liebman Henry A. Wallace Endowed Chair for Sustainable Agriculture Professor of Agronomy Iowa State University Claire Luby, Graduate Student Department of Horticulture University of Wisconsin – Madison Alexandra Lyon, Graduate Student Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies University of Wisconsin – Madison Jennifer MacAdam Associate Professor Plant Physiology and Forage Production Department of Plants, Soils, and Climate Utah State University Michael Mazourek Assistant Professor Calvin Noyes Keeney Professor of Plant Breeding Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics Cornell University Kathleen McAfee Associate Professor, International Relations San Francisco State University V. Ernesto Méndez, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Agroecology & Environmental Studies Agroecology and Rural Livelihoods Group Environmental Program and Plant & Soil Science Department University of Vermont Maywa Montenegro, Ph.D. Student Environmental Science, Policy, and Management University of California – Berkeley Kevin Murphy, Ph.D. Assistant Research Professor/Clinical Assistant Professor Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Washington State University James Myers, Ph.D. Professor of Vegetable Breeding and Genetics Oregon State University John Navazio, Ph.D. Organic Seed Research & Extension Specialist Washington State University/Organic Seed Alliance Nicolette Hahn Niman Author, Livestock Rancher Dan Nuckols Associate Professor, Economics Austin College Founding Board Member, Council for Healthy Food Systems Ivette Perfecto George W. Pack Professor of Natural Resources and Environment University of Michigan Chris Picone, Ph.D. Department of Biology Fitchburg State University (Massachusetts) Gerald Presley Research Assistant Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering University of Minnesota Dianne Rocheleau Professor of Geography Director Global Environmental Studies Clark University (Massachusetts) Dr. Michelle Schroeder-Moreno Assistant Professor and Agroecology Education North Carolina State University Adrienne Shelton, Graduate Student Department of Agronomy University of Wisconsin – Madison Annie Shattuck Department of Geography University of California – Berkeley Gerald R. Smith Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Uninersity of Michigan Richard G. Smith Assistant Professor of Agroecology Department of Natural Resources and the Environment University of New Hampshire Allison A. Snow, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology Ohio State University Doreen Stabinsky, Ph.D. College of the Atlantic Bar Harbor (Maine) Seth Swanson Montana State University Extension Missoula County Extension Horticulturist William F. Tracy, Ph.D. Professor and Chair Friday Chair of Vegetable Research Department of Agronomy University of Wisconsin – Madison Joel Wainwright, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Geography Ohio State University Click here to download a full copy of the letter, including the names of all organizations and researchers who signed.